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NFPA 921 Sections 8-1 through 8-4.5
Recording the Scene

[interFIRE VR Note: Tables and Figures have not been reproduced.]

8-1.* Introduction. In recording any fire or explosion scene, the investigator's goal is to record the scene through a medium that will allow the investigator to recall his or her observations at a later date and to document the conditions at the scene. Common methods of accomplishing this goal include the use of photographs, videotapes, diagrams, maps, overlays, tape recordings, and notes.

Thorough and accurate recording of the scene is critical because it is from this compilation of factual data that investigative opinions and conclusions will be supported and verified. There are a number of resources to assist the investigator in recording the scene.

8-2. Photography. A visual documentation of the fire scene can be made using either film or video photography. Images can portray the scene better than words. They are the most efficient reminders of what the investigator saw while at the scene. Patterns and items may become evident that were overlooked at the time the photographs or videos were made. They can also substantiate reports and statements of the investigator.

Taking a basic photography or video course through a vocational school, camera club, or camera store would be most helpful in getting the photographer familiar with the equipment.

As many photographs should be taken as are necessary to adequately document and record the fire scene. It is recognized that time and expense considerations may impact the number of photographs taken, and the photographer should exercise discretion. It is far preferable to err on the side of taking too many photographs rather than too few.

The exclusive use of videotapes, motion pictures, or slides is not recommended. They are more effective when used in conjunction with still photographs. Also, additional equipment is obviously required to review and utilize videos, films, and slides.

8-2.1. Timing. Taking photographs during or as soon as possible after a fire is important when recording the fire scene, as the scene may become altered, disturbed, or even destroyed. Some reasons why time is important include the following:

(a) The building is in danger of imminent collapse or the structure must be demolished for safety reasons.

(b) The condition of the building contents creates an environmental hazard that needs immediate attention.

(c) Evidence should be documented when discovered as layers of debris are removed, similar to an archaeological dig. Documenting the layers can also assist in understanding the course of the fire.

8-2.2. Basics. The most fundamental aspect of photography that an investigator should grasp and comprehend is how a camera works. The easiest way to learn how a camera works is to compare the camera to the human eye.

One of the most important aspects to remember about fire investigation photography is light. The average fire scene consists of blackened subjects and blackened background creating much less than ideal conditions for taking a photograph. As one can imagine walking into a dark room causes the human eye to expand its pupil in order to gather more light, likewise the camera requires similar operation. The person in a dark room normally turns on the light to enhance the vision just as a photographer uses flash or floodlight to enhance the imitated vision of the camera.

Both the human eye and the camera project an inverted image on the light sensitive surface: the film in the camera and the retina in the eye. The amount of light admitted is regulated by the iris (eye) or diaphragm (camera). In both, the chamber through which the light passes is coated with a black lining to absorb the stray light and avoid reflection.

8-2.2.1. Types of Cameras. There is a multitude of camera types available to the investigator from small, inexpensive models to elaborate versions with a wide range of attachments.

Some cameras are fully automatic, giving some investigators a sense of comfort knowing that all they need to do is point and shoot. These cameras will set the film speed from a code on the film canister, adjust the lens opening (f-stop), and focus the lens by means of a beam of infrared light.

Manual operation is sometimes desired by the investigator so that specialty photographs can be obtained that the automatic camera with its built-in options cannot perform. For example, with a manual camera, bracketing (taking a series of photographs with sequentially adjusted exposures) can be performed to ensure at least one properly exposed photograph when the correct exposure is difficult to measure. There are some cameras that can be operated in a manual as well as an automatic mode, providing a choice from the same camera. Most investigators prefer an automatic camera.

A 35-mm single lens reflex camera is preferred over other formats, but the investigator who has a non-35-mm camera should continue to take photographs as recommended. A back-up camera that instantly develops prints can be advantageous, especially for an important photograph of a valuable piece of evidence.

8-2.2.2. Film. There are many types of film and film speeds available in both slide and print film. There are numerous speeds of film (ASA ratings) especially in the 35-mm range. Since 35 mm (which designates the size of the film) is most recognized and utilized by fire investigators, film speeds will be discussed using this size only. The common speeds range from 25 to 1600 in color and to 6400 in black and white. The numbers are merely a rating system. As the numbers get larger, the film requires less light. While the higher ASA-rated (faster) film is better in low light conditions with no flash, a drawback is that it will produce poorer-quality enlargements, which will have a grainy appearance. The film with the lowest rating that the investigator is comfortable with should be used because of the potential need for enlargements. Most investigators use a film with an ASA rating between 100 and 400. Fire investigators should practice and become familiar with the type and speed of film they intend to use on a regular basis.

8-2.2.3. Prints Versus Slides. There are advantages and disadvantages to both prints and slides. A benefit of slides over prints is that large size images may be displayed at no additional cost. When showing slides in court, every juror's attention can be kept on what the investigator is testifying about. If prints are utilized, the investigator's testimony may only be vaguely recalled if the jury member is busy looking at photographs being passed among the jurors as testimony continues. The use of poster-sized enlargements can help.

Conversely, during testimony of a long duration or detailed explanations of the scene, slides are a burden to refer to without the use of a projector. In this case photographs are easier to handle and analyze. When slides are used, problems can occur, such as the slides jamming or a lamp burning out in the projector. In this case there may be no alternate way to display the scene to the jurors without delay. Prints require no mechanical devices to display them, and notations for purposes of identification, documentation, or description are easily affixed on or adjacent to a still photograph.

Regardless of camera type, film speed, or whether slides or prints are being taken, it is recommended that the investigator use color film. The advantage of color film is that the final product can more realistically depict the fire scene by showing color variations between objects and smoke stains.

8-2.2.4. Lenses. The camera lens is used to gather light and to focus the image on the surface of the film. Most of today's lenses are compound, meaning that multiple lenses are located in the same housing. The fire investigator needs a basic understanding of the lens function to obtain quality photographs. The convex surface of the lens collects the light and sends it to the back of the camera where the film lies. The aperture is an adjustable opening in the lens that controls the amount of light admitted. The adjustments of this opening are sectioned into measurements called f-stops. As the f-stop numbers get larger, the opening gets smaller, admitting less light. These f-stop numbers are listed on the movable ring of the adjustable lenses. Normally the higher the f-stop that can be used, the better the quality of the photograph.

Focal lengths in lenses range from a normal lens (50 mm, which is most similar to the human eye) to the wide angle (28 mm or less) lenses, to telephoto and zoom lenses (typically 100 mm or greater). The investigator needs to determine what focal lengths will be used regularly and become familiar with the abilities of each.

The area of clear definition or depth of field is the distance between the farthest and nearest objects that will be in focus at any given time. The depth of field depends on the distance to the object being photographed, the lens opening, and the focal length of the lens being used. The depth of field will also determine the quality of detail in the investigator's photographs. For a given f-stop, the shorter the focal length of the lens, the greater the depth of field. For a given focal length lens, a larger f-stop (smaller opening) will provide a greater depth of field. The more depth of field, the more minute details that will be seen. This is an important technique to master. These are the most common lens factors with which the fire investigator needs to be familiar. If a fixed lens camera is used, the investigator need not be concerned with adjustments because the manufacturer has preset the lens. A recommended lens is a medium range zoom, such as the 35-70 mm, providing a wide angle with a good depth of field and the ability to take high-magnification close-ups (macros).

8-2.2.5. Filters. The investigator should know that problems can occur with the use of colored filters. Unless proper knowledge of their end results is known, it is recommended that they not be used. If colored filters are used, the investigator should take a photograph with a clear filter also. The clear filter can be continually used and is a good means of protecting the lens.

8-2.2.6. Lighting. The most usable light source known is the sun. No artificial light source can compare realistically in terms of color, definition, and clarity. At the beginning and end of the day, inside a structure or an enclosure, or on an overcast day, a substitute light source will most likely be needed. This can be obtained from a floodlight or from a strobe or flash unit integrated with the camera.

Because a burned area has poor reflective properties, artificial lighting using floodlights is useful. These, however, will need a power source either from a portable generator or from a source within reach by extension cord.

Flash units are necessary for the fire investigator's work. The flash unit should be removable from the camera body so that it can be operated at an angle oblique to that of the lens view. This practice is valuable in reducing the amount of reflection, exposing more depth perception, and amplifying the texture of the heat and flame damaged surfaces. Another advantage to a detachable flash unit is that, if the desired composition is over a larger area, the angle and distance between the flash and the subject can be more balanced.

A technique that will cover a large scene is called photo painting. This can be accomplished by placing the camera in a fixed position with the shutter locked open. A flash unit can be fired from multiple angles, to illuminate multiple subjects or large areas from all angles. The same general effect can be obtained by the use of multiple flash units and remote operating devices called slaves.

For close-up work, a ring flash will reduce glare and give adequate lighting for the subject matter. Multiple flash units can also be used to give a similar effect to the ring flash by placing them to flash at oblique angles.

A photograph of an 18 percent gray card standard may be beneficial for calibration in the printing stages of the photographs and can be photographed at the first frame of a roll of film. This will set the standard of light or flash utilized at each scene.

The investigator should be sure that glare from a flash or floodlight does not distort the actual appearance of an object. For example, smoke stains could appear lighter or nonexistent. In addition, shadows created could be interpreted as burn patterns. Movie lights used with videotapes can cause the same problems as still camera flash units. Using bounce flash, light defusers, or other techniques could alleviate this problem.

The investigator concerned with the potential outcome of a photograph can bracket the exposure. Bracketing is the process of taking the same subject matter at slightly different exposure settings to ensure at least one correct exposure.

8-2.2.7. Special Types of Photography. Today's technology has produced some specialty types of photography. Infrared, laser, and microscopic photography can be used under controlled circumstances. An example would be the ability of laser photography to document a latent fingerprint found on a body.

8-2.3. Composition and Techniques. Photographs may be the most persuasive factor in the acceptance of the fire investigator's theory of the fire's evolution. In fire investigation, a series of photographs should be taken to portray the structure and contents that remain at the fire scene. The investigator generally takes a series of photographs working from the outside toward the inside of a structure as well as from the unburned toward the heaviest burned areas. The concluding photographs are usually of the area and point of origin as well as any elements of the cause of the fire.

It can be useful for the photographer to record, and thereby document, the entire fire scene and not just the suspected point of origin as it may be necessary to show the degree of smoke spread or evidence of undamaged areas.

8-2.3.1. Sequential Photos. Sequential photographs are helpful in understanding the relationship of a small subject to its relative position in a known area. The small subject is first photographed from a distant position where it is shown in context with its surroundings. Additional photographs are then taken increasingly closer until the subject is the focus of the entire frame. (See Figure 8-2.3.1.)

8-2.3.2. Mosaics. A mosaic or collage of photographs can be useful at times when a sufficiently wide angle lens is not available and a panoramic view is desired. This is created by assembling a number of photographs in overlay form to give a more than peripheral view of an area. (See Figure 8-2.3.2.) An investigator needs to identify items (e.g., benchmarks) in the edge of the view finder that will appear in the print and take the next photograph with that same reference point on the opposite side of the view finder. The two prints can then be combined to obtain a wider view than the camera is capable of taking in a single shot.

8-2.3.3. Photo Diagram. A photo diagram can be useful to the investigator. When the finished product of a floor plan is complete, it can be copied and directional arrows can be drawn to indicate the direction from which each of the photographs was taken. Corresponding numbers are then placed on the photographs. This diagram will assist in orienting a viewer who is unfamiliar with the fire scene. A diagram prepared to log a set of photographs might appear as shown in Figure 8-2.3.3.

Recommended documentation includes identification of the photographer, identification of the fire scene (i.e., address or incident number), and the date that the photographs were taken.

The exact time a photograph is taken does not always need to be recorded. There are instances, however, when the time period during which a photograph was taken will be important to an understanding of what the photograph depicts. In photographing an identical subject, natural lighting conditions that exist at noon may result in a significantly different photographic image than natural lighting conditions that exist at dusk. When lighting is a factor, the approximate time or period of day should be noted. Also, the specific time should be noted for any photograph taken prior to extinguishment of the fire as these often help establish time lines in the fire's progress.

8-2.3.4. Assisting Photographer. If a person other than the fire investigator is taking the photographs, the angles and composition should be supervised by the fire investigator to ensure the shots needed to document the fire are obtained. Investigators should communicate their needs to the photographer, as they may not have a chance to return to the fire scene. The investigators should not assume the photographer understands what essential photographs are needed without discussing the content of each photo.

8-2.3.5. Photography and the Courts. For the fire investigator to weave photographs and testimony together in the court room, one requirement in all jurisdictions is that the photograph should be relevant to the testimony. There are other requirements that may exist in other jurisdictions, including noninflammatory content, clarity of the photograph, or lack of distortion. In most courts, if the relevancy exists, the photograph will usually withstand objections. Since the first color photographs were introduced into evidence in a fire trial, most jurisdictions have not distinguished between color or black and white photographs, if the photograph met all other jurisdictional criteria.

8-2.4. Video. In recent years, advancements have made motion pictures more available to the nonprofessional through the use of video cameras. There are different formats available for video cameras including VHS, BETA, and 8 mm. Video is a very useful tool to the fire investigator. A great advantage to video is the ability to orient the fire scene by progressive movement of the viewing angle. In some ways it combines the use of the photo diagram, photo indexing, floor plan diagram, and still photos into a single operation.

When taking videos or movies, zooming-in or otherwise exaggerating an object should be avoided, as it can be considered as presenting a dramatic effect rather than an objective effect that is sometimes required for evidence in litigation work.

Another use of video is for interviews of witnesses, owners, occupants, or suspects when the documentation of their testimony is of prime importance. If demeanor is important to an investigator or to a jury, the video can be helpful in revealing that.

The exclusive use of videotape or movies is not recommended, because such types of photography are often considered less objective and less reliable than still photographs. Video should be used in conjunction with still photographs.

Videotape recording of the fire scene can be a method of recording and documenting the fire scene. The investigator can narrate observations, similar to an audio (only) tape recorder, while videorecording the fire scene. The added benefit is that the investigator can better recall the fire scene, specifically fire patterns or artifact evidence, their location, and other important elements of the fire scene. Utilized in this method, the recording is not necessarily for the purpose of later presentation but is simply another method by which the investigator can record and document the fire scene.

Video recording can also be effective to document the examination of evidence, especially destructive examination. By videotaping the examination, the condition and position of particular elements of evidence can be documented.

8-2.5. Suggested Activities to Be Documented. An investigation may be enhanced if as many aspects of the fire ground activities can be documented as possible or practical. Such documentation may include the suppression activities, overhaul, and the cause and origin investigation.

8-2.5.1. During the Fire. Photographs of the fire in progress should be taken if the opportunity exists. These help show the fire's progression as well as fire department operations. As the overhaul phase often involves moving the contents and sometimes structural elements, photographing the overhaul phase will assist in understanding the scene before the fire.

8-2.5.2. Crowd or People Photographs. Photographs of people in a crowd are often valuable for identifying individuals who may have additional knowledge that can be valuable to the overall investigation.

8-2.5.3. Fire Suppression Photographs. Fire suppression activities pertinent to the investigation include the operation of automatic systems as well as the activities of the responding fire services, whenever possible. All aspects pertinent to these, such as hydrant locations, engine company positions, hose lays, attack line locations, and so forth, play a roll in the eventual outcome of the fire. Therefore, all components of those systems should be photographed.

8-2.5.4. Exterior Photographs. A series of exterior shots should be taken to establish the location of a fire scene. These could include street signs or access streets, numerical addresses, or landmarks that can be readily identified and are likely to remain for some time. Surrounding areas that would represent remote evidence, such as fire protection and exposure damage, should also be photographed. Exterior photographs should also be taken of all sides and corners of a structure to reveal all structural members and their relationships with each other. (See Figure 8-2.5.4.)

8-2.5.5. Structural Photographs. Structural photographs document the damage to the structure after heat and flame exposure. Structural photos can expose burn patterns to track the evolution of the fire and can assist in understanding the fire's origin.

A recommended procedure is to include as much as possible all exterior angles and views of the structure. Oblique corner shots can give reference points for orientation. Photographs should show all angles necessary for a full explanation of a condition.

Photographs of structural failures such as windows, roofs, or walls should be taken because such failures can change the route of fire travel and play a significant roll in the eventual outcome of the fire. Code violations or structural deficiencies should also be photographed because fire travel patterns may have resulted from those deficiencies.

8-2.5.6. Interior Photographs. Interior photographs are equally important. Lighting conditions will likely change from the exterior, calling for the need to adjust technique, but the concerns (tracking and documenting fire travel backward toward the fire origin) are the same. All significant ventilation points accessed or created by the fire should be photographed, as well as all significant smoke, heat, and burn patterns.

Rooms within the immediate area of the fire origin should be photographed even if there is no damage. If warranted, closets and cabinet interiors should also be documented. In small buildings this could involve all rooms, but in large buildings it may not be necessary to photograph all rooms unless there is a need to document the presence, absence, or condition of contents.[See Figure 8-2.5.6(a).]

All heat-producing appliances or equipment, such as furnaces, in the immediate area of the origin or connected to the area of origin should be photographed to document their role, if any, in the fire cause.

All furniture or other contents within the area of origin should be photographed as found and again after reconstruction. Protected areas left by any furnishings or other contents should also be photographed. [See Figure 8-2.5.6(b).]The position of doors and windows during a fire is important, so photographs should be taken that would document those indications and resulting patterns.

Interior fire protection devices such as detectors, sprinklers, extinguishers used, door closers, or dampers should be photographed.

Clocks may indicate the time power was discontinued to them or the time in which fire or heat physically stopped their movement.

8-2.5.7. Utility and Appliance Photographs. The utility (gas, electric) entrances and controls both inside and outside a structure should be photographed. This includes gas and electric meters, gas regulators, and their location relative to the structure. The electric utility pole(s) near the structure that is equipped with the transformer serving the structure and the electrical services coming into the structure as well as the fuse or circuit breaker panels should also be photographed. If there are gas appliances in the fire area of origin, the position of all controls on the gas appliances should be photographed. When photographing electrical circuit breaker panels, the position of all circuit breaker handles and the panel's schedule indicating what electrical equipment is supplied by each breaker, when available, should be photographed. Likewise, all electrical cords and convenience outlets pertinent to the fire's location should be photographed.

8-2.5.8. Evidence Photographs. Items of evidentiary value should be photographed at the scene and can be rephotographed at the investigator's office or laboratory if a more detailed view is needed. During the excavation of the debris strata, articles in the debris may or may not be recognized as evidence. If photographs are taken in a archaeological manner, the location and position of evidence that can be of vital importance will be documented permanently. Photographs orient the articles of evidence in their original location as well as show their condition when found. Evidence is essential in any court case, and the photographs of evidence stand strong with proper identification. In an evidentiary photograph, a ruler can be used to identify relative size of the evidence. Other items can also be used to identify the size of evidence as long as the item is readily identifiable and of constant size (e.g., a penny). A photograph should be taken of the evidence without the ruler or marker prior to taking a photograph with the marker.

8-2.5.9. Victim Photographs. The locations of occupants should be documented, and any evidence of actions taken or performed by those occupants photographed. This would include marks on walls, beds they were in, or protected areas where a body was located. (See Figure 8-2.5.9.) If there is a death involved, the body should be photographed. Surviving victims' injuries and their clothing worn should also be photographed.

8-2.5.10. Witness Viewpoint Photographs. If during an investigation witnesses surface and give testimony as to what they observed from a certain vantage point, a photograph should be taken from the most identical view available. This photograph will orient all persons involved with the investigation as well as a jury to the direction of the witnesses' observations and could support or refute the possibility of their seeing what they said they saw.

8-2.5.11. Aerial Photographs. The views from a high vantage point, which can be an aerial fire apparatus, adjacent building or hill, or from an airplane or helicopter, can often reveal fire spread patterns. Aerial photography can be expensive, and a number of special problems exist that can affect the quality of the results. It is suggested that the investigator seek the advice or assistance of an experienced aerial photographer when such photographs are desired.

8-2.6. Photography Tips. Investigators may help themselves by applying some or all of the following photography tips:

(a) Upon arrival at a fire scene and after shooting an 18 percent gray card, photograph a written title sheet that shows identifying information (i.e., location, date, or situational information).

(b) Label the film canister after each use to prevent confusion or loss.

(c) If the investigator's budget will allow, bulk film can be purchased and loaded into individual canisters that can allow for specific needs in multiple roll sizes and can be less expensive in certain situations.

(d) Carry a tripod that will allow for a more consistent mosaic pattern, alleviate movement and blurred photographs, and assist in keeping the camera free of fire debris. A quick release shoe on the tripod will save time.

(e) Do not combine multiple fire incidents on one roll of film. Complete each fire scene and remove the last roll from the camera before leaving the scene. This will eliminate potential confusion and problems later on.

(f) Carry extra batteries, especially in cold weather when they can be drained quickly. Larger and longer-life battery packs and battery styles are available.

(g) Remember not to leave the batteries in the photography equipment for an extended period of time. Leaking batteries can cause a multitude of problems to electrical and mechanical parts.

(h) Avoid obstruction of the flash or lens by hands, camera strap, or parts of the fire scene. Additionally, when the camera is focused and ready to shoot, both eyes should be opened to determine whether the flash went off.

8-3. Note Taking. Note taking is a complement to drawings and photographs and should primarily be used to supplement items and document items that cannot be photographed or drawn. These may include the following:

(a) Names and addresses

(b) Model/serial numbers

(c) Statements

(d) Photo log

(e) Identification of items

(f) Types of materials (e.g., wood paneling, foam plastic, carpet)

8-3.1. Tape Recorders. Many investigators like to dictate their notes into portable tape recorders. Since people may have difficulty phrasing sentences, it is perfectly acceptable to edit the transcribed version of a tape recording before filing the notes.

The investigator should be careful not to rely solely on tape recorders or any single piece of equipment when documenting critical pieces of information or evidence.

8-4. Drawings. Various types of drawings including sketches, diagrams, and plans can be made or obtained to assist the investigator in documenting and analyzing the fire scene.

Depending on the size or complexity of the fire, various techniques can be used to prepare the drawings. The exact detail required in the drawings depends on the decision of the specific investigator. As with photographs, drawings are used to support memory, as the investigator typically gets only one chance to inspect the fire scene.

8-4.1. Fire Investigation Drawings. After selecting the level of detail to which a drawing will be made, the fire investigator needs to decide how to record the damage patterns observed during the investigation. Once again, the detail needed is the decision of the investigator and should be made with the realization that there may be only one chance to document the scene. The detail may be a general approximation or a precise measurement. Supplemented by photographs, drawings of damage patterns provide good documentation of a fire scene and can assist an investigator in reanalyzing a fire scene if previously unknown information becomes available.

8-4.2. Types of Drawings. The investigator may wish to make several types of drawings to assist in analyzing or explaining a fire scene. Figures 8-4.2(a) through 8-4.2(f) are illustrative of drawing documentation.

8-4.3. Selection of Drawings. In selecting the type of drawing to obtain or create, the investigator should ask what construction features, equipment, or other factors were important to the cause, origin, and spread of the fire. For example, if the interior finish of a facility contributed to the fire, then a drawing showing the location of the material is important; or if the building caught fire due to an adjoining building burning, then a plan showing the location of the two buildings would be important. If a flammable liquid was used in a fire, it would be important to show where it was used and how it was connected.

8-4.4.* Symbols. The selection of drawing symbols is the investigator's decision. Most importantly, the investigator should be consistent with the symbols used on a fire scene drawing. If an E is used to represent an exit sign, it should not also represent an entrance.

8-4.5. Minimum Drawings. In all fire cases the minimum drawing should consist of a simple sketch. A typical building sketch would show the relative locations of rooms, stairs, windows, doors, and associated damage. These drawings can be done freehand with dimensions that are paced off or approximated. This type of drawing should suffice on fire cases where the fire analysis and conclusions are simple. (See Figure 8-4.5.)

More complex scenes or litigation cases may require developing or acquiring actual building plans and detailed documentation of construction, equipment, furnishings, witnesses, and damage.


* A-8-1 For relevant forms that can be used to record the photographs taken and to sketch the scene, see NFPA 906, Guide for Fire Incident Field Notes, Form M-8 (Photographs) and Form M-9 (Sketches). NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, provides symbols useful in diagramming a fire or explosion scene. Helpful information can also be found in Section 11, Chapter 14, Formats for Fire Hazard Inspecting, Surveying, and Mapping, of the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.

* A-8-4.4 Many references, such as NFPA 170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, are available that can be used for assistance.


For more information, contact:
The NFPA Library at (617) 984-7445 or e-mail library@nfpa.org

Taken from NFPA 921Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations 1998 Edition, copyright © National Fire Protection Association, 1998. This material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.

Used by permission.

 

 
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