NFPA 921 Sections 8-1 through 8-4.5
Recording the Scene
[interFIRE VR Note: Tables and Figures have not been reproduced.]
8-1.* Introduction. In recording any fire or explosion scene,
the investigator's goal is to record the scene through a medium that will
allow the investigator to recall his or her observations at a later date
and to document the conditions at the scene. Common methods of accomplishing
this goal include the use of photographs, videotapes, diagrams, maps, overlays,
tape recordings, and notes.
Thorough and accurate recording of the scene is critical because it is
from this compilation of factual data that investigative opinions and conclusions
will be supported and verified. There are a number of resources to assist
the investigator in recording the scene.
8-2. Photography. A visual documentation of the fire scene can
be made using either film or video photography. Images can portray the scene
better than words. They are the most efficient reminders of what the investigator
saw while at the scene. Patterns and items may become evident that were
overlooked at the time the photographs or videos were made. They can also
substantiate reports and statements of the investigator.
Taking a basic photography or video course through a vocational school,
camera club, or camera store would be most helpful in getting the photographer
familiar with the equipment.
As many photographs should be taken as are necessary to adequately document
and record the fire scene. It is recognized that time and expense considerations
may impact the number of photographs taken, and the photographer should
exercise discretion. It is far preferable to err on the side of taking too
many photographs rather than too few.
The exclusive use of videotapes, motion pictures, or slides is not recommended.
They are more effective when used in conjunction with still photographs.
Also, additional equipment is obviously required to review and utilize videos,
films, and slides.
8-2.1. Timing. Taking photographs during or as soon as possible
after a fire is important when recording the fire scene, as the scene may
become altered, disturbed, or even destroyed. Some reasons why time is important
include the following:
(a) The building is in danger of imminent collapse or the structure must
be demolished for safety reasons.
(b) The condition of the building contents creates an environmental hazard
that needs immediate attention.
(c) Evidence should be documented when discovered as layers of debris
are removed, similar to an archaeological dig. Documenting the layers can
also assist in understanding the course of the fire.
8-2.2. Basics. The most fundamental aspect of photography that
an investigator should grasp and comprehend is how a camera works. The easiest
way to learn how a camera works is to compare the camera to the human eye.
One of the most important aspects to remember about fire investigation
photography is light. The average fire scene consists of blackened subjects
and blackened background creating much less than ideal conditions for taking
a photograph. As one can imagine walking into a dark room causes the human
eye to expand its pupil in order to gather more light, likewise the camera
requires similar operation. The person in a dark room normally turns on
the light to enhance the vision just as a photographer uses flash or floodlight
to enhance the imitated vision of the camera.
Both the human eye and the camera project an inverted image on the light
sensitive surface: the film in the camera and the retina in the eye. The
amount of light admitted is regulated by the iris (eye) or diaphragm (camera).
In both, the chamber through which the light passes is coated with a black
lining to absorb the stray light and avoid reflection.
8-2.2.1. Types of Cameras. There is a multitude of camera types
available to the investigator from small, inexpensive models to elaborate
versions with a wide range of attachments.
Some cameras are fully automatic, giving some investigators a sense of
comfort knowing that all they need to do is point and shoot. These cameras
will set the film speed from a code on the film canister, adjust the lens
opening (f-stop), and focus the lens by means of a beam of infrared light.
Manual operation is sometimes desired by the investigator so that specialty
photographs can be obtained that the automatic camera with its built-in
options cannot perform. For example, with a manual camera, bracketing (taking
a series of photographs with sequentially adjusted exposures) can be performed
to ensure at least one properly exposed photograph when the correct exposure
is difficult to measure. There are some cameras that can be operated in
a manual as well as an automatic mode, providing a choice from the same
camera. Most investigators prefer an automatic camera.
A 35-mm single lens reflex camera is preferred over other formats, but
the investigator who has a non-35-mm camera should continue to take photographs
as recommended. A back-up camera that instantly develops prints can be advantageous,
especially for an important photograph of a valuable piece of evidence.
8-2.2.2. Film. There are many types of film and film speeds available
in both slide and print film. There are numerous speeds of film (ASA ratings)
especially in the 35-mm range. Since 35 mm (which designates the size of
the film) is most recognized and utilized by fire investigators, film speeds
will be discussed using this size only. The common speeds range from 25
to 1600 in color and to 6400 in black and white. The numbers are merely
a rating system. As the numbers get larger, the film requires less light.
While the higher ASA-rated (faster) film is better in low light conditions
with no flash, a drawback is that it will produce poorer-quality enlargements,
which will have a grainy appearance. The film with the lowest rating that
the investigator is comfortable with should be used because of the potential
need for enlargements. Most investigators use a film with an ASA rating
between 100 and 400. Fire investigators should practice and become familiar
with the type and speed of film they intend to use on a regular basis.
8-2.2.3. Prints Versus Slides. There are advantages and disadvantages
to both prints and slides. A benefit of slides over prints is that large
size images may be displayed at no additional cost. When showing slides
in court, every juror's attention can be kept on what the investigator is
testifying about. If prints are utilized, the investigator's testimony may
only be vaguely recalled if the jury member is busy looking at photographs
being passed among the jurors as testimony continues. The use of poster-sized
enlargements can help.
Conversely, during testimony of a long duration or detailed explanations
of the scene, slides are a burden to refer to without the use of a projector.
In this case photographs are easier to handle and analyze. When slides are
used, problems can occur, such as the slides jamming or a lamp burning out
in the projector. In this case there may be no alternate way to display
the scene to the jurors without delay. Prints require no mechanical devices
to display them, and notations for purposes of identification, documentation,
or description are easily affixed on or adjacent to a still photograph.
Regardless of camera type, film speed, or whether slides or prints are
being taken, it is recommended that the investigator use color film. The
advantage of color film is that the final product can more realistically
depict the fire scene by showing color variations between objects and smoke
8-2.2.4. Lenses. The camera lens is used to gather light and
to focus the image on the surface of the film. Most of today's lenses are
compound, meaning that multiple lenses are located in the same housing.
The fire investigator needs a basic understanding of the lens function to
obtain quality photographs. The convex surface of the lens collects the
light and sends it to the back of the camera where the film lies. The aperture
is an adjustable opening in the lens that controls the amount of light admitted.
The adjustments of this opening are sectioned into measurements called f-stops.
As the f-stop numbers get larger, the opening gets smaller, admitting less
light. These f-stop numbers are listed on the movable ring of the adjustable
lenses. Normally the higher the f-stop that can be used, the better the
quality of the photograph.
Focal lengths in lenses range from a normal lens (50 mm, which is most
similar to the human eye) to the wide angle (28 mm or less) lenses, to telephoto
and zoom lenses (typically 100 mm or greater). The investigator needs to
determine what focal lengths will be used regularly and become familiar
with the abilities of each.
The area of clear definition or depth of field is the distance between
the farthest and nearest objects that will be in focus at any given time.
The depth of field depends on the distance to the object being photographed,
the lens opening, and the focal length of the lens being used. The depth
of field will also determine the quality of detail in the investigator's
photographs. For a given f-stop, the shorter the focal length of the lens,
the greater the depth of field. For a given focal length lens, a larger
f-stop (smaller opening) will provide a greater depth of field. The more
depth of field, the more minute details that will be seen. This is an important
technique to master. These are the most common lens factors with which the
fire investigator needs to be familiar. If a fixed lens camera is used,
the investigator need not be concerned with adjustments because the manufacturer
has preset the lens. A recommended lens is a medium range zoom, such as
the 35-70 mm, providing a wide angle with a good depth of field and the
ability to take high-magnification close-ups (macros).
8-2.2.5. Filters. The investigator should know that problems
can occur with the use of colored filters. Unless proper knowledge of their
end results is known, it is recommended that they not be used. If colored
filters are used, the investigator should take a photograph with a clear
filter also. The clear filter can be continually used and is a good means
of protecting the lens.
8-2.2.6. Lighting. The most usable light source known is the
sun. No artificial light source can compare realistically in terms of color,
definition, and clarity. At the beginning and end of the day, inside a structure
or an enclosure, or on an overcast day, a substitute light source will most
likely be needed. This can be obtained from a floodlight or from a strobe
or flash unit integrated with the camera.
Because a burned area has poor reflective properties, artificial lighting
using floodlights is useful. These, however, will need a power source either
from a portable generator or from a source within reach by extension cord.
Flash units are necessary for the fire investigator's work. The flash
unit should be removable from the camera body so that it can be operated
at an angle oblique to that of the lens view. This practice is valuable
in reducing the amount of reflection, exposing more depth perception, and
amplifying the texture of the heat and flame damaged surfaces. Another advantage
to a detachable flash unit is that, if the desired composition is over a
larger area, the angle and distance between the flash and the subject can
be more balanced.
A technique that will cover a large scene is called photo painting. This
can be accomplished by placing the camera in a fixed position with the shutter
locked open. A flash unit can be fired from multiple angles, to illuminate
multiple subjects or large areas from all angles. The same general effect
can be obtained by the use of multiple flash units and remote operating
devices called slaves.
For close-up work, a ring flash will reduce glare and give adequate lighting
for the subject matter. Multiple flash units can also be used to give a
similar effect to the ring flash by placing them to flash at oblique angles.
A photograph of an 18 percent gray card standard may be beneficial for
calibration in the printing stages of the photographs and can be photographed
at the first frame of a roll of film. This will set the standard of light
or flash utilized at each scene.
The investigator should be sure that glare from a flash or floodlight
does not distort the actual appearance of an object. For example, smoke
stains could appear lighter or nonexistent. In addition, shadows created
could be interpreted as burn patterns. Movie lights used with videotapes
can cause the same problems as still camera flash units. Using bounce flash,
light defusers, or other techniques could alleviate this problem.
The investigator concerned with the potential outcome of a photograph
can bracket the exposure. Bracketing is the process of taking the same subject
matter at slightly different exposure settings to ensure at least one correct
8-2.2.7. Special Types of Photography. Today's technology has
produced some specialty types of photography. Infrared, laser, and microscopic
photography can be used under controlled circumstances. An example would
be the ability of laser photography to document a latent fingerprint found
on a body.
8-2.3. Composition and Techniques. Photographs may be the most
persuasive factor in the acceptance of the fire investigator's theory of
the fire's evolution. In fire investigation, a series of photographs should
be taken to portray the structure and contents that remain at the fire scene.
The investigator generally takes a series of photographs working from the
outside toward the inside of a structure as well as from the unburned toward
the heaviest burned areas. The concluding photographs are usually of the
area and point of origin as well as any elements of the cause of the fire.
It can be useful for the photographer to record, and thereby document,
the entire fire scene and not just the suspected point of origin as it may
be necessary to show the degree of smoke spread or evidence of undamaged
8-2.3.1. Sequential Photos. Sequential photographs are helpful
in understanding the relationship of a small subject to its relative position
in a known area. The small subject is first photographed from a distant
position where it is shown in context with its surroundings. Additional
photographs are then taken increasingly closer until the subject is the
focus of the entire frame. (See Figure 8-2.3.1.)
8-2.3.2. Mosaics. A mosaic or collage of photographs can be useful
at times when a sufficiently wide angle lens is not available and a panoramic
view is desired. This is created by assembling a number of photographs in
overlay form to give a more than peripheral view of an area. (See Figure
8-2.3.2.) An investigator needs to identify items (e.g., benchmarks)
in the edge of the view finder that will appear in the print and take the
next photograph with that same reference point on the opposite side of the
view finder. The two prints can then be combined to obtain a wider view
than the camera is capable of taking in a single shot.
8-2.3.3. Photo Diagram. A photo diagram can be useful to the
investigator. When the finished product of a floor plan is complete, it
can be copied and directional arrows can be drawn to indicate the direction
from which each of the photographs was taken. Corresponding numbers are
then placed on the photographs. This diagram will assist in orienting a
viewer who is unfamiliar with the fire scene. A diagram prepared to log
a set of photographs might appear as shown in Figure 8-2.3.3.
Recommended documentation includes identification of the photographer,
identification of the fire scene (i.e., address or incident number), and
the date that the photographs were taken.
The exact time a photograph is taken does not always need to be recorded.
There are instances, however, when the time period during which a photograph
was taken will be important to an understanding of what the photograph depicts.
In photographing an identical subject, natural lighting conditions that
exist at noon may result in a significantly different photographic image
than natural lighting conditions that exist at dusk. When lighting is a
factor, the approximate time or period of day should be noted. Also, the
specific time should be noted for any photograph taken prior to extinguishment
of the fire as these often help establish time lines in the fire's progress.
8-2.3.4. Assisting Photographer. If a person other than the fire
investigator is taking the photographs, the angles and composition should
be supervised by the fire investigator to ensure the shots needed to document
the fire are obtained. Investigators should communicate their needs to the
photographer, as they may not have a chance to return to the fire scene.
The investigators should not assume the photographer understands what essential
photographs are needed without discussing the content of each photo.
8-2.3.5. Photography and the Courts. For the fire investigator
to weave photographs and testimony together in the court room, one requirement
in all jurisdictions is that the photograph should be relevant to the testimony.
There are other requirements that may exist in other jurisdictions, including
noninflammatory content, clarity of the photograph, or lack of distortion.
In most courts, if the relevancy exists, the photograph will usually withstand
objections. Since the first color photographs were introduced into evidence
in a fire trial, most jurisdictions have not distinguished between color
or black and white photographs, if the photograph met all other jurisdictional
8-2.4. Video. In recent years, advancements have made motion
pictures more available to the nonprofessional through the use of video
cameras. There are different formats available for video cameras including
VHS, BETA, and 8 mm. Video is a very useful tool to the fire investigator.
A great advantage to video is the ability to orient the fire scene by progressive
movement of the viewing angle. In some ways it combines the use of the photo
diagram, photo indexing, floor plan diagram, and still photos into a single
When taking videos or movies, zooming-in or otherwise exaggerating an
object should be avoided, as it can be considered as presenting a dramatic
effect rather than an objective effect that is sometimes required for evidence
in litigation work.
Another use of video is for interviews of witnesses, owners, occupants,
or suspects when the documentation of their testimony is of prime importance.
If demeanor is important to an investigator or to a jury, the video can
be helpful in revealing that.
The exclusive use of videotape or movies is not recommended, because
such types of photography are often considered less objective and less reliable
than still photographs. Video should be used in conjunction with still photographs.
Videotape recording of the fire scene can be a method of recording and
documenting the fire scene. The investigator can narrate observations, similar
to an audio (only) tape recorder, while videorecording the fire scene. The
added benefit is that the investigator can better recall the fire scene,
specifically fire patterns or artifact evidence, their location, and other
important elements of the fire scene. Utilized in this method, the recording
is not necessarily for the purpose of later presentation but is simply another
method by which the investigator can record and document the fire scene.
Video recording can also be effective to document the examination of
evidence, especially destructive examination. By videotaping the examination,
the condition and position of particular elements of evidence can be documented.
8-2.5. Suggested Activities to Be Documented. An investigation
may be enhanced if as many aspects of the fire ground activities can be
documented as possible or practical. Such documentation may include the
suppression activities, overhaul, and the cause and origin investigation.
8-2.5.1. During the Fire. Photographs of the fire in progress
should be taken if the opportunity exists. These help show the fire's progression
as well as fire department operations. As the overhaul phase often involves
moving the contents and sometimes structural elements, photographing the
overhaul phase will assist in understanding the scene before the fire.
8-2.5.2. Crowd or People Photographs. Photographs of people in
a crowd are often valuable for identifying individuals who may have additional
knowledge that can be valuable to the overall investigation.
8-2.5.3. Fire Suppression Photographs. Fire suppression activities
pertinent to the investigation include the operation of automatic systems
as well as the activities of the responding fire services, whenever possible.
All aspects pertinent to these, such as hydrant locations, engine company
positions, hose lays, attack line locations, and so forth, play a roll in
the eventual outcome of the fire. Therefore, all components of those systems
should be photographed.
8-2.5.4. Exterior Photographs. A series of exterior shots should
be taken to establish the location of a fire scene. These could include
street signs or access streets, numerical addresses, or landmarks that can
be readily identified and are likely to remain for some time. Surrounding
areas that would represent remote evidence, such as fire protection and
exposure damage, should also be photographed. Exterior photographs should
also be taken of all sides and corners of a structure to reveal all structural
members and their relationships with each other. (See Figure 8-2.5.4.)
8-2.5.5. Structural Photographs. Structural photographs document
the damage to the structure after heat and flame exposure. Structural photos
can expose burn patterns to track the evolution of the fire and can assist
in understanding the fire's origin.
A recommended procedure is to include as much as possible all exterior
angles and views of the structure. Oblique corner shots can give reference
points for orientation. Photographs should show all angles necessary for
a full explanation of a condition.
Photographs of structural failures such as windows, roofs, or walls should
be taken because such failures can change the route of fire travel and play
a significant roll in the eventual outcome of the fire. Code violations
or structural deficiencies should also be photographed because fire travel
patterns may have resulted from those deficiencies.
8-2.5.6. Interior Photographs. Interior photographs are equally
important. Lighting conditions will likely change from the exterior, calling
for the need to adjust technique, but the concerns (tracking and documenting
fire travel backward toward the fire origin) are the same. All significant
ventilation points accessed or created by the fire should be photographed,
as well as all significant smoke, heat, and burn patterns.
Rooms within the immediate area of the fire origin should be photographed
even if there is no damage. If warranted, closets and cabinet interiors
should also be documented. In small buildings this could involve all rooms,
but in large buildings it may not be necessary to photograph all rooms unless
there is a need to document the presence, absence, or condition of contents.[See
All heat-producing appliances or equipment, such as furnaces, in the
immediate area of the origin or connected to the area of origin should be
photographed to document their role, if any, in the fire cause.
All furniture or other contents within the area of origin should be photographed
as found and again after reconstruction. Protected areas left by any furnishings
or other contents should also be photographed. [See Figure 8-2.5.6(b).]The
position of doors and windows during a fire is important, so photographs
should be taken that would document those indications and resulting patterns.
Interior fire protection devices such as detectors, sprinklers, extinguishers
used, door closers, or dampers should be photographed.
Clocks may indicate the time power was discontinued to them or the time
in which fire or heat physically stopped their movement.
8-2.5.7. Utility and Appliance Photographs. The utility (gas,
electric) entrances and controls both inside and outside a structure should
be photographed. This includes gas and electric meters, gas regulators,
and their location relative to the structure. The electric utility pole(s)
near the structure that is equipped with the transformer serving the structure
and the electrical services coming into the structure as well as the fuse
or circuit breaker panels should also be photographed. If there are gas
appliances in the fire area of origin, the position of all controls on the
gas appliances should be photographed. When photographing electrical circuit
breaker panels, the position of all circuit breaker handles and the panel's
schedule indicating what electrical equipment is supplied by each breaker,
when available, should be photographed. Likewise, all electrical cords and
convenience outlets pertinent to the fire's location should be photographed.
8-2.5.8. Evidence Photographs. Items of evidentiary value should
be photographed at the scene and can be rephotographed at the investigator's
office or laboratory if a more detailed view is needed. During the excavation
of the debris strata, articles in the debris may or may not be recognized
as evidence. If photographs are taken in a archaeological manner, the location
and position of evidence that can be of vital importance will be documented
permanently. Photographs orient the articles of evidence in their original
location as well as show their condition when found. Evidence is essential
in any court case, and the photographs of evidence stand strong with proper
identification. In an evidentiary photograph, a ruler can be used to identify
relative size of the evidence. Other items can also be used to identify
the size of evidence as long as the item is readily identifiable and of
constant size (e.g., a penny). A photograph should be taken of the evidence
without the ruler or marker prior to taking a photograph with the marker.
8-2.5.9. Victim Photographs. The locations of occupants should
be documented, and any evidence of actions taken or performed by those occupants
photographed. This would include marks on walls, beds they were in, or protected
areas where a body was located. (See Figure 8-2.5.9.) If there is
a death involved, the body should be photographed. Surviving victims' injuries
and their clothing worn should also be photographed.
8-2.5.10. Witness Viewpoint Photographs. If during an investigation
witnesses surface and give testimony as to what they observed from a certain
vantage point, a photograph should be taken from the most identical view
available. This photograph will orient all persons involved with the investigation
as well as a jury to the direction of the witnesses' observations and could
support or refute the possibility of their seeing what they said they saw.
8-2.5.11. Aerial Photographs. The views from a high vantage point,
which can be an aerial fire apparatus, adjacent building or hill, or from
an airplane or helicopter, can often reveal fire spread patterns. Aerial
photography can be expensive, and a number of special problems exist that
can affect the quality of the results. It is suggested that the investigator
seek the advice or assistance of an experienced aerial photographer when
such photographs are desired.
8-2.6. Photography Tips. Investigators may help themselves by
applying some or all of the following photography tips:
(a) Upon arrival at a fire scene and after shooting an 18 percent gray
card, photograph a written title sheet that shows identifying information
(i.e., location, date, or situational information).
(b) Label the film canister after each use to prevent confusion or loss.
(c) If the investigator's budget will allow, bulk film can be purchased
and loaded into individual canisters that can allow for specific needs in
multiple roll sizes and can be less expensive in certain situations.
(d) Carry a tripod that will allow for a more consistent mosaic pattern,
alleviate movement and blurred photographs, and assist in keeping the camera
free of fire debris. A quick release shoe on the tripod will save time.
(e) Do not combine multiple fire incidents on one roll of film. Complete
each fire scene and remove the last roll from the camera before leaving
the scene. This will eliminate potential confusion and problems later on.
(f) Carry extra batteries, especially in cold weather when they can be
drained quickly. Larger and longer-life battery packs and battery styles
(g) Remember not to leave the batteries in the photography equipment
for an extended period of time. Leaking batteries can cause a multitude
of problems to electrical and mechanical parts.
(h) Avoid obstruction of the flash or lens by hands, camera strap, or
parts of the fire scene. Additionally, when the camera is focused and ready
to shoot, both eyes should be opened to determine whether the flash went
8-3. Note Taking. Note taking is a complement to drawings and
photographs and should primarily be used to supplement items and document
items that cannot be photographed or drawn. These may include the following:
(a) Names and addresses
(b) Model/serial numbers
(d) Photo log
(e) Identification of items
(f) Types of materials (e.g., wood paneling, foam plastic, carpet)
8-3.1. Tape Recorders. Many investigators like to dictate their
notes into portable tape recorders. Since people may have difficulty phrasing
sentences, it is perfectly acceptable to edit the transcribed version of
a tape recording before filing the notes.
The investigator should be careful not to rely solely on tape recorders
or any single piece of equipment when documenting critical pieces of information
8-4. Drawings. Various types of drawings including sketches,
diagrams, and plans can be made or obtained to assist the investigator
in documenting and analyzing the fire scene.
Depending on the size or complexity of the fire, various techniques can
be used to prepare the drawings. The exact detail required in the drawings
depends on the decision of the specific investigator. As with photographs,
drawings are used to support memory, as the investigator typically gets
only one chance to inspect the fire scene.
8-4.1. Fire Investigation Drawings. After selecting the level
of detail to which a drawing will be made, the fire investigator needs to
decide how to record the damage patterns observed during the investigation.
Once again, the detail needed is the decision of the investigator and should
be made with the realization that there may be only one chance to document
the scene. The detail may be a general approximation or a precise measurement.
Supplemented by photographs, drawings of damage patterns provide good documentation
of a fire scene and can assist an investigator in reanalyzing a fire scene
if previously unknown information becomes available.
8-4.2. Types of Drawings. The investigator may wish to make several
types of drawings to assist in analyzing or explaining a fire scene. Figures
8-4.2(a) through 8-4.2(f) are illustrative of drawing documentation.
8-4.3. Selection of Drawings. In selecting the type of drawing
to obtain or create, the investigator should ask what construction features,
equipment, or other factors were important to the cause, origin, and spread
of the fire. For example, if the interior finish of a facility contributed
to the fire, then a drawing showing the location of the material is important;
or if the building caught fire due to an adjoining building burning, then
a plan showing the location of the two buildings would be important. If
a flammable liquid was used in a fire, it would be important to show where
it was used and how it was connected.
8-4.4.* Symbols. The selection of drawing symbols is the investigator's
decision. Most importantly, the investigator should be consistent with the
symbols used on a fire scene drawing. If an E is used to represent an exit
sign, it should not also represent an entrance.
8-4.5. Minimum Drawings. In all fire cases the minimum drawing
should consist of a simple sketch. A typical building sketch would show
the relative locations of rooms, stairs, windows, doors, and associated
damage. These drawings can be done freehand with dimensions that are paced
off or approximated. This type of drawing should suffice on fire cases where
the fire analysis and conclusions are simple. (See Figure 8-4.5.)
More complex scenes or litigation cases may require developing or acquiring
actual building plans and detailed documentation of construction, equipment,
furnishings, witnesses, and damage.
* A-8-1 For relevant forms that can be used to record the
photographs taken and to sketch the scene, see NFPA 906, Guide for Fire
Incident Field Notes, Form M-8 (Photographs) and Form M-9 (Sketches). NFPA
170, Standard for Fire Safety Symbols, provides symbols useful in diagramming
a fire or explosion scene. Helpful information can also be found in Section
11, Chapter 14, Formats for Fire Hazard Inspecting, Surveying, and Mapping,
of the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.
* A-8-4.4 Many references, such as NFPA 170, Standard for
Fire Safety Symbols, are available that can be used for assistance.
For more information, contact:
The NFPA Library at (617) 984-7445 or e-mail email@example.com
Taken from NFPA 921Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations
1998 Edition, copyright © National Fire Protection Association,
1998. This material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA
on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the standard in
Used by permission.